In recent years, the advertisement business has been dominated by overt sexual overtones. Today, amid the summer heat and the peak of the resort season, everything from billboards to social media seems exhibit models in skimpy dresses. Recent studies indicate, however, that nothing really suggests that sex actually sells.
According to the recent studies, the assumption that sexual content actually helps boost the sales of goods is unfounded. Not only do racy undertones have no positive effect on clientele, but can actually dissuade prospective buyers.
While sex indeed makes ads more memorable, viewers are not any more likely to recall the actual brands or even the products advertised, a meta-study by the University of Illinois, Ball State University and the University of California-Davis revealed, after having examined 78 peer-reviewed advertising studies from 1969 to 2017, involving over 17,000 consumers.
Contrary to popular belief, the sexualization of advertisements didn’t spur people into buying more things, which is the main goal of advertising. Rather a reverse effect was noticed, as the participants were also more likely to have a negative attitude towards the brands that used sex in their ads than those that didn’t.
According to the report’s leading author, John Wirtz of the University of Illinois, ads with sexual appeal provide no positive effect on a participants’ intention to buy products. However, men on average were found to like ads with sexual appeals more than women, who were found to be more disapproving. Wirtz defined sexual content as fully or partially naked models, sexual contact or as partially hidden words or images that have a sexual message.
“This is something advertisers need to take seriously,” Amanda Oxell, the founder of Sweden’s Advertising Council, told Sweden’s national broadcaster SVT.
Remarkably, this isn’t the first study to arrive at this conclusion. A similar meta-analysis in 2015, by researchers at Ohio State University, found brands that used sex-laden ads to be viewed less favorably in comparison with neutral ads.
According to social anthropologist and advertising researcher Raoul Galli of Stockholm University, the fact that sex ads work badly is no secret for advertising agencies.
“They are fully aware of the fact that there are completely other things that drive people to buy. But what is sex really? Today’s ads tend to consist of beautiful and handsome people who are more or less dressed in more or less intimate situations. A Volvo ad featuring Zlatan [Ibrahimovic] playing with his muscles, is it sex?” Raoul Galli told SVT.
Accordingly, Galli does not believe that ads with sexual hints will ever disappear completely.
“While I believe ads where discrimination and sexism occur have been reduced, we’ll probably never see ads that are clinically pure from love and power, and this includes sexuality,” he said.
NY Times: Christopher Nolan’s Latest Time-Bending Feat? ‘Dunkirk’
By CARA BUCKLEY
With his new movie, “Dunkirk,” (out Friday, July 21), Mr. Nolan ventures into the harsh world of a real war.
By Mike King
REBUTTAL BY THE ANTI-NEW YORK TIMES
It is amazing how this stinking movie genre of World War II lies, which started with The Great Dictator in 1940, is still going strong after 77 years! Boy oh boy, evidently The Great One (that’s Hitler for all youse newbies and normies) must have really shaken the New World Order gang to its rotten Satanic core.
Though we just cannot bring ourselves to the theater and subject our volatile emotions to two hours of fraudulent filth on the big screen, based on reviewing several extended You Tube trailers, and in light of the fact that a “historian” named Joshua Levine (cough cough) was hired to help develop the script, we already know the oh-so-predictable historical spin of the Dunkirk “escape” that this propaganda film will surely present. Let us debunk the lasting lie about “the miracle at Dunkirk.”
Sandwiched around our explanation of why the British were able to so easily “escape” at Dunkirk, are critical bits of before and after historical context, excerpted from “The Bad War: The Truth Never Taught About World War II.”
1. As part of prepping the American public for eventual entry into World War II, Communist Charlie Chaplin, described in FBI files as a “secret Jew” (here), mercilessly mocks Hitler in 1940 film, The Great Dictator. 2. Fake historian Joshua Levine (cough cough) collaborated on the script of Dunkirk. 3. The Bad War (banned by Amazon) sets the record straight! (here)
OCTOBER, 1939 – MAY, 1940
HITLER PLEADS FOR PEACE WITH BRITAIN & FRANCE
The quiet period between the end of the German-Polish (started by Poland) war until May 1940, is dubbed by a U.S. Senator as “The Phony War.” During this time, Hitler pleads for the Allies to withdraw their war declarations. Towards France he declares:.
“I have always expressed to France my desire to bury forever our ancient enmity and bring together these two nations, both of which have such glorious pasts.”
To the British, Hitler says:
“I have devoted no less effort to the achievement of Anglo-German friendship. At no time and in no place have I ever acted contrary to British interests….Why should this war in the West be fought?”
Hitler’s pleas for peace are ignored as the allies begin to mobilize more than 2,000,000 troops in Northern France. Plans are openly discussed to advance eastward upon Germany, via “neutral” Belgium and Holland, as well as establishing operations in “neutral” Norway and Denmark, with or without their consent.
During his speech of October 6, 1939, Hitler pleaded for peace. Meanwhile, the British government shamelessly frightened its own people with idiotic tales of imminent German gas attacks.
MAY 10, 1940
GERMANY LAUNCHES PRE-EMPTIVE INVASION OF BELGIUM & THE NETHERLANDS
The massive invasion of Germany’s industrial Ruhr region is to come through the ostensibly “neutral” League of Nations member states of Belgium and The Netherlands, whose governments are under intense Allied pressure to allow safe passage for the planned Allied attack on the bordering Ruhr region of Germany.
As an act of national self-defense, Germany takes the fight to the Allies before they can bring it to German soil and reinstitute a 2nd Versailles Treaty. In a stunning advance westward, the German Blitzkrieg quickly overtakes the smaller nations and pushes the Allied armies into a full retreat towards the beaches of northern France.
The Globo-Zionist press, as well as today’s history books, portrays the Blitz as “the Nazi conquest of Holland, Belgium, and France.” But the menacing presence of the massive Allied force on Germany’s industrial frontier is conveniently ignored, as is the undeniable and extensive collaboration between the “neutral” Low Countries and the Allies.
After the invasion, the German government published “Allied Intrigue in the Low Countries.” which is a 50-page English language paper detailing the full extent of Belgian and Dutch cooperation with the Allies. The western press and modern court-historians have buried these allegations.
MAY 27 – JUNE 4, 1940
AS A SIGN OF FRIENDSHIP, HITLER ALLOWS THE ALLIED ARMIES TO ESCAPE AT DUNKIRK
After Germany’s stunning advance, the Allies are trapped on the beaches of Dunkirk, France. The entire force can be easily captured, but Hitler issues a halt order — since spun by court historians as being due to concern over tanks getting stuck in mud or just plain carelessness.
The truth is, Hitler doesn’t want war. As a show of good faith towards his western tormentors, Hitler believes that the British will be more likely to make peace if they can escape with their dignity intact.
A massive boat lift involving British fishermen ferries the troops across the English Channel back to England. The Globalist Press maliciously spins Hitler’s gracious act as a “miraculous escape right under Hitler’s nose.”
The alcoholic Winston Churchill vows to keep fighting as he frightens the British people with tales of imminent German invasion.
Real History (left) / Hollywood History (right)
Allies trapped on the beach. Hitler’s Luftwaffe (Air Force) could easily have taken the entire Allied force prisoner. His gracious act allows the soldiers to escape from Dunkirk. Notice how the actual photo above of the event (Image 1) depicts a calm, methodical and unhindered slow escape. — no German air attacks! Image 2, from the new movie, falsely portrays the “great escape” as taking place under German aircraft fire.
“He (Hitler) then astonished us by speaking with admiration of the British Empire, of the necessity for its existence, and of the civilization that Britain had brought into the world. ….He compared the British Empire with the Catholic Church saying they were both essential elements of stability in the world. He said that all he wanted from Britain was that she should acknowledge Germany’s position on the Continent. The return of Germany’s colonies would be desirable but not essential, and he would even offer to support Britain with troops if she should be involved in difficulties anywhere.”
– German General Gunther von Blumentritt
MAY – JUNE, 1940
CHURCHILL DELIVERS HISTORIC RADIO ADDRESSES USING A VOICE ACTOR TO IMPERSONATE HIM
Throughout the spring and early summer of 1940, the brainwashed people of Britain cluster around their radios to hear defiant and motivational oratory from what they believe is the mouth of their new Prime Minister.
The ‘We Shall Fight on the Beaches’ Speech
On June 4, after the evacuation of the defeated British army from Dunkirk, the radio version of the British Mad Dog pledges:
“We shall fight on the seas and oceans. We shall fight in the air. We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.”
“And if, which I do not for a moment believe, this island or large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British fleet would carry on the struggle until, in God’s good time, the New World (United States) with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.”
It is now known, in spite of what some ‘in-denial’ Churchill sycophants still refuse to accept, that this radio broadcast and others, were made not by Churchill, but by an actor hired to impersonate him. Norman Shelley, who voiced for Winnie-the-Pooh for the BBC’s Children’s Hour, ventriloquized Churchill for history and fooled tens of millions of listeners.
Perhaps Churchill is too much incapacitated by drink to deliver the speeches himself; or perhaps his difficult-to-understand speech has been deemed not suitable for a radio audience. So you see, not only was Churchill the “literary giant” a proven plagiarist who also used ghostwriters; it turns out that Churchill the “orator” was also a sham!
1- Nothing is real about the British Mad Dog – nothing! 2- Norman Shelley delivered the most famous radio speeches in 20th Century British History 3- Shelley later voiced for the children’s cartoon character ‘Winnie the Pooh’ — an inside joke made to mock ‘Winston the Piece of Crap’, perhaps?
JULY 20, 1940
HITLER DROPS ‘PEACE LEAFLETS’ OVER LONDON!
With Germany in total control of the continent and the war situation, Hitler responds to Churchill’s unilateral air bombardment by dropping mass quantities of leaflets over London. The 4-page broadsheet contains an English language summary of Hitler’s recent speech before the Reichstag. The speech is entitled, “A Last Appeal to Reason,” in which he closes with a final appeal for peace:
“In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more to reason and common sense in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider myself in a position to make this appeal, since I am not the vanquished, begging favors, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices it will claim.
Possibly Mr. Churchill again will brush aside this statement of mine by saying that it is merely born of fear and of doubt in our final victory. In that case I shall have relieved my conscience in regard to the things to come.”
The British respond to Hitler’s sincere plea with mockery, threats, and more bombs. UK warmonger Sefton Delmer, the future head and mastermind of British “Black Propaganda,” is just about to make his debut broadcast to Germany on the BBC when he hears about Hitler’s “last appeal to reason.” He rejects any notion of a compromise peace. Bigmouth Delmer announces:
“Herr Hitler,” you have in the past consulted me as to the mood of the British public. So permit me to render your Excellency this little service once again tonight. Let me tell you what we here in Britain think of this appeal of yours to what you are pleased to call our reason and common sense. Herr Führer, we hurl it right back at you, right in your evil smelling teeth.”
Delmer’s inflammatory statement upset a few peace-minded Members of Parliament, but undoubtedly pleased Churchill, his Jewish handlers, and other assorted “patriots” very much.
1 & 2 – Ignorant British soldier laughs as he reads Hitler’s air-dropped peace leaflet. 3- Black Propagandist Sefton Delmer keeps the war-fires burning.
And that, dear reader, is the true before-during-after story of Dunkirk that you’ll neither see nor hear out of Jewish Hollywood. Sight unseen, (other than the various extended trailers) we give this soon-to-be released “summer blockbuster” one big “rotten tomato.” Save your money, and pick up a copy of The Bad War and/or The Hitler Photo Album instead.
PM Netanyahu and the heads of state from Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland, in Budapest, July 19, 2017 (Haim Tzach/GPO)
‘There is no logic here. Europe is undermining its security by undermining Israel’
In hot mic comments, Netanyahu lashes EU’s ‘crazy’ policy on Israel
By Raphael Ahren
Unaware that audio from his closed-door meeting with Central European leaders is being piped to reporters, PM says Europe will ‘shrivel and disappear’ if it doesn’t change course
BUDAPEST — Unaware that his remarks were also being transmitted to reporters outside, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu criticized the European Union in unusually harsh terms on Wednesday for its treatment of Israel, urging the leaders of four Central European countries to use their influence in the organization to ease its conditions for advancing bilateral ties.
“I think Europe has to decide if it wants to live and thrive or if it wants to shrivel and disappear,” he said in a closed-door meeting whose content was accidentally broadcast to journalists outside the room. “I am not very politically correct. I know that’s a shock to some of you. It’s a joke. But the truth is the truth — both about Europe’s security and Europe’s economic future. Both of these concerns mandate a different policy towards Israel.”
During the meeting, Netanyahu also urged the leaders of Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland to close their borders to refugees from Africa and the Arab world, and praised the administration of US President Donald Trump for its “stronger” position on Iran and Syria.
“The European Union is the only association of countries in the world that conditions the relations with Israel, that produces technology in every area, on political conditions. The only ones! Nobody does it,” Netanyahu said in the minutes before officials realized the meeting was being overheard by reporters, and cut the feed.
“It’s crazy. It’s actually crazy,” he said, referring to the EU’s insistence on conditioning some agreements with Israel on progress in the peace process. He referred the EU-Israel Association Agreement, which has not been renewed since 2000. He urged the prime ministers who were present — Hungary’s Viktor Orban, the Czech Republic’s Bohuslav Sobotka, Poland’s Beata Szydlo and Slovakia’s Robert Fico — to work toward convincing Brussels to advance talks about renewing the agreement without reference to progress in the peace process.
“Please help us, and help Europe, in the expediting this association agreement,” he said.
PM Netanyahu and the leaders of the Visegrad Group — Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland — in Budapest, July 19, 2017 (Haim Tzach/GPO)
“It’s not about my interests, Israel’s interest. I’m talking about Europe’s interest,” Netanyahu said.
China, Russia and India all have special relationships with Israel that aren’t contingent on progress in the peace process, Netanyahu said. “They don’t care about the political issue.” He cited conversations with the leaders of those countries in which they said they were interested in what Israel had to offer them and disregarded the lingering issue of the Palestinians.
“We have a special relationship with China. And they don’t care, they don’t care about the political issues,” he said.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, during his recent visit to Israel, told Netanyahu he needs water for his people. “Where will I get it. Ramallah? No,” Netanyahu said, also noting that Israeli cows produce more milk than any other cows in the world — double the European average.
“If I can suggest that what comes out of this meeting is your ability, perhaps, to communicate to your colleagues in other parts of Europe: Help Europe… Don’t undermine the one Western country that defends European values and European interests and prevents another mass migration to Europe.”
The prime minister has often claimed that Israel is a bulwark preventing Europe from being flooded with refugees and migrants from Africa and the Middle East.
“So stop attacking Israel. Start supporting Israel… Start supporting European economies by doing what the Americans, the Chinese and the Indians are doing,” he said, referring to increasing technological cooperation. Europe is “cutting itself off” from Israel, a major source of innovation, he protested.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi visit the water desalination plant at Olga beach on July 6, 2017. (Kobi Gideon/GPO/Flash90)
“There is no logic here. Europe is undermining its security by undermining Israel. Europe is undermining its progress by undermining the connection with Israeli innovation because of a crazy attempt to create conditions,” he added.
After their closed-door meeting, Netanyahu and the other four prime ministers addressed the press. The Israeli leader joked that his remarks would be short because the Israeli press had already received an extensive briefing.
“We believe it’s in the objective interest of Europe to cooperate with Israel in the fight against terrorism, and technology for the future,” Netanyahu said.
“There’s an anomaly. I don’t hide it. We’re often criticized by Western Europe, often more than any other place in the world,” he continued. The Jewish state is the one democracy in the Middle East, a “beacon of tolerance” and a “bastion of European and Western values in the heart of a very, very dark area,” he said.
Even many Arab countries understand that Israel serves their interests, he added. “So it’s time to have a reassessment in Europe about their relations with Israel. We have much to offer each other. We have much to offer in the realm of security, much to offer in the realm of technology.”
Earlier, during the closed meeting, Netanyahu also expressed clear backing for the so-called Visegrad Group’s support of border fences to guard Europe from another wave of refugees from the Middle East.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (L) and his Hungarian counterpart Viktor Orban give a joint press conference at the parliament in Budapest, Hungary, on July 18, 2017 (AFP PHOTO / HUNGARIAN PRIME MINISTER’S OFFICE AND POOL / KAROLY ARVAI)
He said he believes in the free flow of goods and ideas — “but not people… Secure your borders. Secure your borders,” he urged the Eastern European leaders.
On the geopolitical situation in the Middle East, Netanyahu said Israel “had a big problem” with the Obama administration in Washington and its too-hesitant policies vis-a-vis Iran and Syria, and was more pleased with its predecessor.
“I think it’s different now. Vis-a-vis Iran, there is a stronger position,” he said. The US is conducting more bombing attacks in Syria, which is “a positive thing. I think we’re OK on ISIS. We’re not OK on Iran.”
Israel build a border fence on the Golan Heights because the Islamic State and Iran via its proxies have and are still trying to set “a terror front” against Israel there, Netanyahu went on.
“Frankly, I told [Russian President Vladimir] Putin, when we see them doing this, we take military action against them. We’ve been doing this dozens and dozens of times, and we’ve not clashed with Russia.”
(Please watch: White Genocide Explained by its Architects if you do not understand what’s funny about this.)
Now you will understand why this is a farce of 2 members of the Freemasons:
Palestine’s Abbas in China to Meet Xi, Discuss Peace, Business
China’s President Xi Jinping (L) greets Palestinian counterpart Mahmoud Abbas in Beijing. (FILE) | Photo: Reuters
“We look at the Palestinian-Chinese relation as a special one and we consider it developing over the past years,” Palestine’s top diplomat told Xinhua.
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas began a three-day official visit to China Monday, where he is scheduled to meet Chinese President Xi Jinping.
Discussions on Israeli violations of Palestinian territory and developments in the wider Middle East are among the agenda items scheduled for Abbas’ talks with Xi.
Abbas has also noted that he will take up Xi’s four-point proposal for peace talks with the Israelis, which focus on an independent Palestinian state, negotiations as the pathway to peace, the so-called “land for peace” principle, and guarantees from the international community in regards to the peace process.
Upon landing in Beijing, the Palestinian top official accompanied by Foreign Minister Riyad al-Maliki met Chinese Deputy Foreign Minister Wang Yi and several other Chinese representatives.
In an interview with China’s Xinhua news agency, al-Maliki effusively noted the Palestinian “message of friendship and gratitude to the Chinese position in support of the Palestinian cause over the years.”
“We look at the Palestinian-Chinese relation as a special one and we consider it developing over the past years,” he said. “We appreciate this relation and we thank China for all that it has provided to Palestine over the long years.”
In April, Wang met with al-Maliki and reiterated China’s longstanding support for an end to Israel’s illegal occupation of Palestine and the creation of an independent Palestinian state.
Wang noted that 70 years after the U.N. General Assembly passed Resolution 181 calling for the creation of an independent Palestine alongside Israel, Palestinians are still being denied their independence.
“This is unfair. This kind of historical injustice must be corrected. It cannot continue,” Wang added.
© Kacper Pempel / Reuters
Governments are using so called ‘cyber troops’ to manipulate public opinion on social media, according to a study from the University of Oxford. Researchers say the extent to which some governments use these techniques may surprise the public.
The practice is a sweeping global phenomenon used in both authoritarian regimes and western democracies, according to researchers at the Computational Propaganda Project, who have been investigating the issue since 2012.
A newly published paper from the project entitled ‘Troops, Trolls and Troublemakers : A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation’ examines the practice across 28 countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey and Venezuela.
The research focuses exclusively on organized social media campaigns that have the clear support of political parties and governments.
Researchers conducted a content analysis of mainly mainstream media outlets, including The Guardian, BBC News, The Washington Post, and The New York Times. This was supplemented with “sources from think tanks, government agencies, civil society groups, universities and other sources of credible research.”
The team noted that they also consulted with country experts to check facts, find additional sources in multiple languages and assist in evaluating the quality of sources.
The full report, ‘A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation,’ can be found here:
Comparing democracies and authoritarian regimes, the study found that only a few social media campaigns organized by authoritarian regimes targeted foreign countries while in contrast, “almost every democracy in this sample has organized social media campaigns that target foreign publics.”
The study found that social media manipulation tactics varied widely among governments from commenting on Facebook and Twitter posts, to targeting people individually.
“I don’t think people realize how much governments are using these tools to reach them. It’s a lot more hidden,” Samantha Bradshaw, the report’s lead author told Bloomberg, noting the prominence of social media manipulation among democratic governments.
“They are using the same tools and techniques as the authoritarian regimes,” Bradshaw said. “Maybe the motivations are different, but it’s hard to tell without the transparency.”
The study highlights the British Army’s 77th Brigade, formed in 2015, to “focus on non‐lethal psychological operations using social networks like Facebook and Twitter to fight enemies by gaining control of the narrative in the information age.”
US court upholds ‘gag’ rules on surveillance of social media users https://on.rt.com/8i18
US court upholds ‘gag’ rules on surveillance of social media users — RT America
Privacy advocates suffered a stinging defeat by a federal appeals court which ruled in favor of the FBI’s nondisclosure surveillance requests enforced on social media and tech companies.
In the US, the study named DARPA, US Cyber Command, US Agency for International Development, the Air Force and Pentagon as government organizational forums operating to alter public opinion through social media.
It cites budgets for three specific US government projects, valued at $2.7 million, $42 million and $8.9million.
DARPA funded a $8.9 million study in the US in 2010 to see how social media could be used to influence people’s behavior by tracking how they responded to content online
In 2011 it announced an investment of $41 million in an R&D program to study social media networks and how information and ideas spread
Both the Democratic and Republican parties were identified by the project as political parties who used social media to manipulate public opinion during a campaign.
Centcom and tech security firm HBGary are listed as private contractors hired on behalf of the US government for specific projects.
In 2011 members of Anonymous claimed responsibility for hackingHBGary’s servers – an apparent response to claims by HBGary CEO Aaron Barr that he had used social media exploitation to infiltrate the hacking collective.
The leak revealed that the company had been hired by the US government to develop software which could create an army of fake social media profiles to manipulate public opinion on controversial issues.
While the end goal of each country analyzed in the paper is to shape public opinion, the techniques used differ from offering users positive comments to trolling them.
Some, like Israel, opted for positive engagement with individuals critical of the government, through its 350 official government social media accounts.
Saudi Arabia tended to divert attention from unfavorable topics being discussed by using ‘cyber troops’ to spam trending hashtags, according to the project.
Meanwhile, a number of countries including the US, Russia and China were recorded as using a combination of positive, negative and distracting engagement on social media.
The use of social media manipulation among governments is likely to grow, according to researchers who admit that they “are almost certainly cyber troop operations that have not been publicly documented.”
(For embedded video go to Source)
The World Health Organisation warned of resistance to antibiotics as a serious global health threat but there could be a solution to that and it is coming from Africa.
Researchers in Morocco after 30 years of study have found an alternative antibiotics made from natural medicinal plants such as oregano, thyme and rosemary.
Photo: Jimmy Siya/The Independent, Jessica Kiyingi, a vendor at Kampala’s popular market, Owino, selling second-hand clothes
By Isaac Khisa
USED CLOTHES: What panic in Kenya and Rwanda’s firm stand mean for Uganda?
Among optimists, the proposal by East African Community (EAC) member states to ban the importation of used clothes by 2019 is great because it could spark the growth of a local textile industry in the bloc.
But pessimists say the move will complicate the region’s trade arrangements with leading partners including the U.S. which is also a large exporter of used clothes to the region. It could also increase the cost of clothes in countries where the majority of the population is poor and lead to the import of new cheap clothes to out-compete the very industries the regional governments seek to protect.
Faced with these options, some business analysts are proposing a middle-ground that reflects the status quo. They say the region is better off allowing entry of used clothes as it also develops its own textile industry.
“As a region, there’s need to allow entry of any products provided there are no illegalities in the sale of those items on our markets while at the same time boosting their production locally,” said Charles Ocici, the executive director at Enterprise Uganda, a USAID-sponsored agency for equipping skills to small and medium firms.
He suggests a co-existence of used and new clothes in the regional markets and the use of taxes to ensure fair competition between them.
That way, Ocici says, the burden of the ban will not only be felt by the poor but by all clothing consumers, who will, in turn, buy the locally made clothes.
He added that the co-existence will also make EAC avoid unnecessarily frictions with the powers where used clothes originate.
Isaac Shinyekwa, the head of Trade and Regional Integration Department at the Makerere University-based Economic Policy and Research Centre (EPRC) told The Independent in an interview that banning used clothes will leave the population naked.
“We indeed need to stop second clothes coming in because they are affecting the growth of our textile industries. But we cannot just wake up one day and say we are stopping it. What is in place to ensure that that gap is filled?” he asked.
He said leaders of the EAC should have developed a plan to make sure that the local textile industries can stand on their own prior to starting to implement the ban.
Already, the office of the US Trade Representative (USTR) is said to be reviewing trade benefits to Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) after a complaint by U.S. interests about an East African ban on imports of used clothing.
USTR said recently that the review was in response to a petition filed by the Secondary Materials and Recycled Textiles Association (SMART), which complained that the ban “imposed significant hardship” on the US used-clothing industry and violated AGOA rules.
AGOA, which was extended last year, allows exporters from African countries that meet given terms, to export their goods into the U.S. without the usual tough restrictions. In turn, America also gets some preferential treatment of their products.
In March last year, the head of states in the EAC, which comprises of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and South Sudan agreed to ban import of used clothes in the region in three years as part of the EAC Vision 2050 and the Industrialization Policy to enhance manufacturing sector that currently contributes 8.7% to the regional Gross Domestic Product to 25% by 2032. The move, however, could also harm a multi-billion shilling group of importers.
As such, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania have raised taxes for used clothes and offered incentives to manufactures to invest in their local textile sectors starting this financial year 2017/18.
Uganda has increased the environmental levy imposed on used clothes from 15 % to 20 % of the cost and freight insurance (CIF) value in some taxes during the post-election budget.
Rwanda has increased taxes on import of used clothes for the second consecutive year from $0.2 to $2.5 in the last financial year to US$4 per kg this financial year arguing that it intends to protect the market for new clothes made locally. In the financial year 18/19, Rwanda plans to charge $5 per kg on import of used clothes.
However, Kenya has bowed out of the plan, supposedly to save its U.S. market for new clothes produced locally in the Economic Processing Zones. Last year, Kenya is estimated to have exported US$ 394million worth of textiles and apparel to the USA under AGOA.
But Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania say they will not back away from their plans due to pressure from local and foreign business firms at the expense of their local textile industries.
Matia Kasaija, Uganda’s minister for Finance, Planning and Economic Development told The Independent that the government took a decisive position to protect its local textile industries and thus will not bow to pressure locally or internationally to remove the imposed taxes on used clothes.
“We are not going to back away from our plans to ban used clothes in this country because few business people in the US or Uganda are interested in the business,” he said.
“Why should our people continue wearing ‘dead people’s clothes’ when we grow cotton and have got our on factories? Is it fair? It is not. We can trade in many other things but not in used clothes.”
He said any business person interested in selling clothes in Uganda and the region, should instead focus on importing new garments.
He added that the new clothes are expensive but the governments in the region are interested in promoting cotton growing in the bloc and increase household incomes of the citizens who will eventually afford new clothes.
Recently, Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame stated that his country will proceed with the ban on used clothes despite of threats by the US to review trade benefits to the three EAC countries.
“This is the choice we find that we have to make. As far as I am concerned, making the choice is simple, we might suffer consequences. Even when confronted with difficult choices, there is always a way,” he said after officially applying to run for a third term in office, whose election is slated next month.
“Rwanda and other countries in the region that are part of AGOA, have to do other things, we have to grow and establish our industries,” Kagame added.
Tanzania’s Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs and East African Cooperation, Susan Kolimba told a local daily that the future of the community is bright.
“Differing is common in any group. The good thing about our community is that we have a room for discuss issues, which we have differed from, until we reach a consensus,” she told The Citizen.
Tanzania Private Sector Foundation’s (TPSF) Executive Director Godfrey Simbeye said any decision taken by the US will have a little effect on the country’s economy since there are few industries i that are taking advantage of the market.
US AGOA imports from Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda totaled $43 million in 2016, up from $33 million in 2015, according to the USTR.
On the other hand, US exports to Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda were $281 million in 2016, up from $257 million the year before, most of which consists of used clothes.
A research carried out by a trade law and policy analyst, Esther Katende-Magezi, dubbed ‘The impact of second hand clothes and shoes in East Africa’ published by the Geneva based CUTS International this year, shows that cotton produced in the EAC is spun and woven in Asia, converted into apparels and shipped to USA and EU to be worn for 2-3 years and shipped back to Africa (EAC) as used clothing, to clothe up to 70% of African population.
In Africa, the EAC is one of the biggest importers of second hand clothes from US, UK and China. In 2013, the EAC total percentage of global used clothes trade amounted to 8%, with 3 % for Kenya, 1.9% for Uganda, 1.9 % for Tanzania, 0.6 % t for Rwanda and 0.2 % for Burundi.
This is the main reason that spinners have consistently expressed concern that there is low demand for fabric because the EAC fabric market is choked with imported second hand clothes which has also led to the closure of several textiles mills that were, for example, performing well in Kenya and Uganda such as Raymond, KIKOM, Mulco, African Textile Mills, Rayon Textiles, and Lira Spinning Mill leading to loss of millions of jobs.
Magezi notes that while the decision could boost the cotton, apparel, textile and leather sectors and ultimately enhance employment a rising from industrialization, the governments could also experience significant losses in tax revenue.
For example, Kenya collected $54 million in tariff revenue on 100,000 tons of imported used clothing in 2013. In 2016, Rwanda nearly tripled its import duty on imported clothing from 35 % to 100 % to encourage purchases from the country’s limited textile mills.
Also, the banning used clothes imports could lead to smuggling of the banned clothing into the EAC countries, especially in the short run due to shortage and the limited ability to afford brand new garments.
“Smuggling would not only promote illicit trade and deny the governments’ tax revenue but also put a higher burden on governments to address smuggling. Further, enforcement of the ban could be at a cost to the governments that would have to put in place measures to implement the ban in the different states,” she said.
How other countries are handling the issue of secondhand clothes
In South Africa, importation of used clothes has been banned. Outside the continent, countries such as India have embraced their cultural attire which is manufactured/ designed locally and therefore reduces demand for second hand cloth imports.
However, using this strategy in EAC would be a challenge given the absence of widely accepted cultural attire and the popularity of Western fashion in the Partner States.
On the other hand, developed countries have focused on improving the competitiveness of their local textile industries and the incomes of their citizens to discourage importation of second hand clothes.
“And they have done this, not overnight, but the industry has been built and developed over the years and in some cases, through family generations, where it is now paying off highly,” she says.